Autism is a condition where neurodevelopment is abnormal. This includes delay in speech and intellectual disability.

Autism spectrum disorders are caused by heterozygous mutation in the TBR1 gene on chromosome 2q and along with other neighboring genes.


Heterozygous means that the particular gene or genes are having two different alleles.

Autism spectrum condition includes following illnesses:

  • Autistic Disorder.
  • Asperger disorder.
  • Rett disorder.
  • Childhood disintegrative disorder.
  • Pervasive developmental disorder- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).

Autistic Disorder:

Autistic disorder is not just related to one specific gene, infect the disorder involves multiple genes. This disorder is caused by genetic and environmental factors. The risk of getting Autistic disorder is due to polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. (Ref: PMC5881102)

The enzyme is responsible for forming 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolatein. During neural development, the enzyme main function involved DNA methylation.

Epigenetics could also influence the initiation of immune responses, during the maternal pregnancy immune activation.

Asperger disorder:

More coming soon!.

According to the research article of Oxytocin Infusion Reduces Repetitive Behaviors in Adults with Autistic and Asperger’s Disorders, indicated that oxytocin influences in reducing repeated behavior.

Oxytocin is often consider as love hormone. Here are the few list of food that contain oxytocin: fish, avocado and spinash etc.

Rett disorder (RTT):

Is a rare X-linked disorder.

Phenotype for girls includes lose speech and purposeful hand movements at 6–18 months and subsequently progress to develop microcephaly, seizures, ataxia, stereotypic hand movements, abnormal breathing patterns, and autistic behavior. (Ref: Nature: Molecular genetics of autism spectrum disorder)

More coming soon!